A Brief History On February 1, 2004 at Super Bowl XXXVIII in Houston, Texas, history was made when a “wardrobe malfunction” caused Janet Jackson to briefly expose her breast on live national television! Digging Deeper Digging deeper, we find the National Football League (NFL) Championship Game, known as the Super Bowl, the premier television event of the year in the United States, with 90 million viewers exposed to what became known as “Nipplegate.” With the Super Bowl regularly commanding such a huge audience, only top-notch entertainers are usually provided as half-time entertainment, and at this Super Bowl Janet Jackson and Justin Timberlake headed…

A Brief History On February 1, 2003, the United States suffered the second loss of a space shuttle, this time the Columbia. Digging Deeper Digging deeper, we find Columbia at the completion of its 28th mission and ready to start reentry into Earth’s atmosphere at about 8:10 am for an estimated 9:16 am landing in Florida. Speeding around the Earth at over 20 times the speed of sound, Columbia was doomed, and the crew did not know it.  On take off, a piece of foam insulation had broken off of a large external fuel tank and had struck the left wing,…

A Brief History On January 31, 1747, the London Lock Hospital opened, the first clinic specifically for the treatment of venereal diseases! Digging Deeper Digging deeper, we find many diseases today are identified as “venereal” or sexually transmitted by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Back in the days when science had not yet discovered the microscopic causes of disease, Europeans thought mainly of syphilis when addressing the subject of venereal disease.  Although it is not proven beyond a doubt, many scientists think that syphilis was unknown in Europe until infected sailors among the crews of Christopher Columbus’s ships returned…

A Brief History On January 30, 1703, 47 Japanese samurai avenged the forced suicide of their feudal lord. Digging Deeper Digging deeper, we find that the Japanese code of Bushido was an Eastern code of honor similar to the old European code of chivalry. Samurai who became leaderless were called Ronin (a term made memorable by Robert DiNiro in the 1998 movie Ronin, set in modern times) and were bound by honor to avenge the death of their lord and leader. The 47 Ronin at the center of this incident were left leaderless when their lord was forced to commit suicide after having…

A Brief history On January 30, 1661, Oliver Cromwell, former Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, was removed from his grave and “executed” 2 years after his death! Digging Deeper Digging deeper, we find Cromwell the ultimate winner of the English Civil War, having deposed the monarchy and becoming the de facto ruler of Britain. After leading the anti-royalist forces known as the Roundheads against the forces of King Charles I, known as the Cavaliers, Cromwell was among those who decided Charles I should be executed after his defeat. Charles I was executed in 1649. Cromwell was a…

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