A Brief History
On November 3, 2020, the 2020 United States of America (U.S.) presidential election will be the 59th quadrennial U.S. presidential election. The president of the U.S. is the head of state and head of government of the U.S. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. This article therefore indicates the executive and military experience of the major party candidates currently running for president. For the purpose of our table below, “executive experience” refers to holding an executive political office such as mayor or governor and not an executive business title.
|Name||Party||Executive Experience||Military Experience|
|Michael Farrand Bennet (born November 28, 1964)||Democratic||Superintendent of Denver Public Schools (July 1, 2005 – January 21, 2009)||None|
|Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942)||Democratic||47th Vice President of the United States (January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017)||None|
|Cory Anthony Booker (born April 27, 1969)||Democratic||38th Mayor of Newark (July 1, 2006 – October 31, 2013)||None|
|Stephen Clark Bullock (born April 11, 1966)||Democratic||24th Governor of Montana (January 7, 2013 – present)||None|
|Peter Paul Montgomery Buttigieg (born January 19, 1982)||Democratic||32nd Mayor of South Bend (January 1, 2012 - present)||He served in the United States Naval Reserve (2009–2017) during the War in Afghanistan and attained the rank of Lieutenant.|
|Julián Castro (born September 16, 1974)||Democratic||Mayor of San Antonio (June 1, 2009 – July 22, 2014)||None|
|Bill de Blasio (born May 8, 1961)||Democratic||109th Mayor of New York City (January 1, 2014 - present)||None|
|John Kevin Delaney (born April 16, 1963)||Democratic||None||None|
|Tulsi Gabbard (born April 12, 1981)||Democratic||None||She has served in the United States Army (2003–present) during the Iraq War, has attained the rank of Major, and has been awarded a Meritorious Service Medal, an Army Commendation Medal, and an Army Achievement Medal.|
|Kirsten Elizabeth Gillibrand (born December 9, 1966)||Democratic||None||None|
|Maurice Robert "Mike" Gravel (born May 13, 1930)||Democratic||None||He served in the United States Army (1951–1954) and attained the rank of First Lieutenant.|
|Kamala Devi Harris (born October 20, 1964)||Democratic||None||None|
|John Wright Hickenlooper Jr. (born February 7, 1952)||Democratic||43rd Mayor of Denver (July 21, 2003 – January 11, 2011) and 42nd Governor of Colorado (January 11, 2011 – January 8, 2019)||None|
|Jay Robert Inslee (born February 9, 1951)||Democratic||23rd Governor of Washington (January 16, 2013 - present)||None|
|Amy Jean Klobuchar (born May 25, 1960)||Democratic||None||None|
|Wayne Martin Messam (born June 7, 1974)||Democratic||10th Mayor of Miramar (April 1, 2015 - present)||None|
|Seth Wilbur Moulton (born October 24, 1978)||Democratic||None||He served in the United States Marine Corps (2001–2008) during the Iraq War, attained the rank of Captain, and has earned the following awards: Bronze Star (2) with valor and a Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal with valor.|
|Robert Francis "Beto" O'Rourke (born September 26, 1972)||Democratic||Mayor pro tempore of El Paso (June 14, 2005 – June 20, 2006)||None|
|Timothy John Ryan (born July 16, 1973)||Democratic||None||None|
|Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941)||Democratic||37th Mayor of Burlington (April 6, 1981 – April 4, 1989)||None|
|Joseph Ambrose Sestak Jr. (born December 12, 1951)||Democratic||None||He served in the United States Navy (1974–2005), attained the rank of Vice admiral, was the Director of Navy Operations Group, and earned the following awards: Defense Distinguished Service Medal (3), Navy Distinguished Service Medal (2), Legion of Merit (2), Meritorious Service Medal (2), and Joint Service Commendation Medal.|
|Thomas Fahr Steyer (born June 27, 1957)||Democratic||None||None|
|Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946)||Republican||45th President of the United States (January 20, 2017 - present)||At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school. By his senior year, the cadet attained the rank of captain.|
|Elizabeth Ann Warren (born June 22, 1949)||Democratic||None||None|
|William Floyd Weld (born July 31, 1945)||Republican||68th Governor of Massachusetts (January 3, 1991 – July 29, 1997)||None|
|Marianne Deborah Williamson (born July 8, 1952)||Democratic||None||None|
|Andrew Yang (born January 13, 1975)||Democratic||None||None|
As a potentially important note, some of the candidates listed above actually avoided serving in the military during wartime. For example, both Biden and Trump received student draft deferments during the peak of the Vietnam War (1955–1975). They subsequently received reclassifications for medical reasons. In 1968, Biden was reclassified by the Selective Service System as not available for service due to having had asthma as a teenager, while Trump was given a medical deferment which resulted in a 1-Y classification: “Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency.” In 1972, Trump was reclassified as 4-F, which permanently disqualified him from service.
Question for students (and subscribers): Should the president of the U.S. have both executive and military experience prior to becoming president? Should those candidates in the table above who have neither be essentially disqualified as valid candidates? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.
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For more information, please see…
Biden, Joe. Promise Me, Dad: A Year of Hope, Hardship, and Purpose. Flatiron Books, 2017.
Buttigieg, Pete. Shortest Way Home: One Mayor’s Challenge and a Model for America’s Future. Liveright, 2019.
Moulton, Seth. Called to Serve: Learning to Lead in War and Peace. All Points Books, 2020.
Sanders, Bernie. Bernie Sanders Guide to Political Revolution. Henry Holt and Co. (BYR), 2017.
Trump, Donald J. Great Again: How to Fix Our Crippled America. Threshold Editions, 2016.
The featured image in this article, a photograph by Sgt. Gabriela Garcia of John Mack (left), Commandant of the Marine Corps, Gen. Joseph F. Dunford, Jr. (second left), and Steven Wallace (right), the Co-founder of Marine Corps-Law Enforcement Foundation (MC-LEF), awarding Donald J. Trump the Commandant’s Leadership award during the MC-LEF 20th Annual Semper Fidelis Gala at New York, N.Y., April 22, 2015, is in the public domain because it contains materials that originally came from the United States Marine Corps. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the public domain.