Browsing: Religion

A Brief History On July 25, 1593, Henry IV, King of France, converted from Calvanist Protestant back to the Catholicism of  his birth.  Henry had been raised Protestant, even though he was baptized Catholic.  His conversion back to Catholic came in the midst of the Wars of Religion, battles between Catholic and Protestant Europeans. Digging Deeper Was Henry’s re-conversion a political ploy or a sincere action of conscience?  It would seem to be a move made for political expediency, something monarchs and other national leaders have done throughout history.  Napoleon Bonaparte did not think highly of religion, but he recognized…

A Brief History On July 16, 1439, the Parliament of King Henry VI of England issued a proclamation banning kissing. Digging Deeper This ban of something we now think of as being so personal was in response to yet another outbreak of plague. This particular plague was probably not the bubonic plague which caused an epidemic known as the Black Death in which entire populations were wiped out. In those years, the word “plague” was a general term used to describe any infectious malady that spread rampantly. So, was the Government getting involved in the personal matter of affection between…

A Brief History This article presents key events in the life of Joan of Arc and the Hundred Years’ War. Digging Deeper On August 2, 1343, Olivier Clisson, a French nobleman from Brittany, was convicted of treason in Paris and beheaded.  He had been fighting the British in the Hundred Years War, and when his success tapered off, he was criticized and accused of treason, perhaps to deflect blame from French losses. On August 26, 1346, at the battle of Crecy, English archers proved the superiority of the English Longbow over the combination of armored knights and crossbowmen fielded by the…

A Brief History On June 25, 1843, Marie Anne Lenormand, France’s most famous fortune teller and cartomancer (card reader), died. Digging Deeper Born in 1772 and educated at a convent school in Alençon, she moved to Paris sometime between 1786 and 1790 and set up a type of office for clairvoyance. Early clients included the heads of the French Revolution (Marat, Robespierre and Saint-Just). She is said to have predicted their violent demise. Her imprisonment by the Committee of Public Safety which had been created by the National Convention and which formed the de facto executive government during the Reign…

A Brief History In 1529 an ecclesiastical, legatine court, presided over by a representative of the Pope, had been created to try the validity of the marriage between Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. The trial was held at Blackfriars Priory in London, and on June 18, both Henry and Catherine were summoned to appear before the court. Digging Deeper By this point in time, Henry and Catherine, his brother’s widow, had been married for 20 years. Though they had been happy for the majority of their marriage, Catherine had been unable to provide a son who…

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