Browsing: Military

A Brief History On November 17, 1810, Sweden declared war on its ally the United Kingdom to begin the Anglo-Swedish War, although no fighting ever took place and there were no casualties! Digging Deeper Prior to 1810, Britain and Sweden were allies against Napoleonic France.  In 1810, however, the situation changed.  France and Sweden concluded The Treaty of Paris on January 6, 1810, forcing Sweden to join the Continental System, a trade embargo against Great Britain.  Next, after The Swedish Crown Prince Charles August died on May 28, 1810, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, a Marshal of France and husband of Napoleon’s former…

A Brief History On November 11, 1918, Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car in the forest of Compiègne, France, officially ending fighting at the eleventh hour on the eleventh day in the eleventh month, but fighting did not actually end at that exact time and nor did the war! Digging Deeper Today, Belgium, France, Serbia, and New Zealand commemorate the armistice between the Allies of World War I and Germany.  The Commonwealth Nations, except Mozambique, similarly observe Remembrance Day, while the United States honors those who served its armed forces on Veterans Day, both…

A Brief History On November 10, 1202, despite letters from Pope Innocent III (a much more popular pope than Guilty III) forbidding it and threatening excommunication, Catholic crusaders on the Fourth Crusade began a siege of the Catholic city of Zara (now Zadar, Croatia). Digging Deeper Whereas the First Crusade successfully restored Jerusalem to Christian rule and laid the basis for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, subsequent crusades were far less productive for the crusaders.  Jerusalem was lost after the failed Second Crusade.  Nor would it be regained during the Third Crusade, even with the participation of Europe’s three most powerful…

A Brief History On November 8, 1520, the Stockholm Bloodbath began in which a successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces resulted in the execution of around 100 people. Digging Deeper In 1520, Sweden was divided between two factions.  First were those who favored a union of Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) established in 1397 and second, those who advocated for Swedish independence.  Denmark’s King Christian II launched an invasion of Sweden to maintain the union. Having succeeded in his military intervention, Christian subsequently summoned key Swedish leaders to a private conference at the palace on November 7, 1520. …

A Brief History On November 6, 1632 at the Battle of Lützen during the Thirty Years’ War, the Swedes won, but their King, Gustavus Adolphus, died in the battle. Digging Deeper The Thirty Years’ War was probably central Europe’s all-time worst religious war fought between Catholics and Protestants.  Around two dozen different European countries and their colonies were involved in the conflict at some time or another from 1618 to 1648.  With so many countries involved for so long, it should not be all that surprising that around 8 million soldiers and civilians are counted among the casualties of one…

1 120 121 122 123 124 126